Cancer Control Snapshot #10: An update on colorectal cancer screening in Canada
There is strong evidence from randomized controlled trials that screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) using the fecal occult blood test (FOBT)* reduces mortality and incidence of the disease.1-4 National screening recommendations for CRC have been in place in Canada for the past 10 years 5-6 and by 2010, all provinces had announced or were running organized CRC screening programs or pilot programs. This Snapshot presents results from the 2011 Colon Cancer Screening in Canada survey.† Initially conducted in 2009, the 2011 survey provides follow-up information on the impact that CRC screening programs and national awareness campaigns have had on Canadians’ knowledge and attitudes about CRC screening.
Cancer Control Snapshot #9: Second-hand smoke and cancer
Second-hand smoke, also known as environmental tobacco smoke or passive smoke, can increase the risk of cancer among non-smokers. Second-hand smoke consists of a combination of smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette (termed sidestream smoke) and the smoke that is exhaled by a smoker (termed mainstream smoke), with sidestream smoke being about four times more toxic than mainstream smoke.1 Among the more than 7,000 chemicals that have been identified in second-hand tobacco smoke, at least 250 are known to be harmful including hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, and ammonia.
Cancer Control Snapshot #8: Melanoma and Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation
Skin cancer is the most common of all cancer types accounting for a third of all new cancers in Canada in 2010.1 Non-melanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common form of skin cancer with an estimated 75,500 new cases in Canada in 2010.1 Cutaneous malignant melanoma is more rare with an estimated 5,300 cases diagnosed in 2010. Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer, causing almost 80% of all skin cancer deaths1 and is the focus of this Snapshot. The main risk factor for all types of skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), including ultraviolet A (UVA) and B (UVB), with UVA also contributing to skin aging.2 UVR emitted from the sun and tanning beds is a major cause of melanoma and other skin cancers.
Cancer Control Snapshot #7: The HPV Vaccine and Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer is largely preventable. Despite this, an estimated 1,300 Canadian women were diagnosed with, and 370 died from cervical cancer in 2010.1 Infection with certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV), acquired through sexual intercourse, causes nearly all cases of cervical cancer. The HPV vaccine is effective in preventing infection with the most important high-risk HPV types that can lead to precancerous lesions in the cervix. While cervical cancer screening has led to considerable declines in cervical cancer incidence and mortality over the past few decades, the combination of HPV vaccination and continued screening can help further reduce the burden of this disease. Recommendations for HPV vaccination were released in Canada in 2007 and presently, all provinces and territories have implemented publicly funded HPV vaccine programs.
Cancer Control Snapshot #6: Obesity and Cancer in Canada
The prevalence of obesity is on the rise in Canada among children and adults. Obesity has been associated with increased mortality from various health conditions including cardiovascular disease and certain cancers.1-2 Avoiding obesity, along with appropriate food and nutrition, regular physical activity and limiting alcohol consumption can prevent about one-third of all cancers.3 This report provides health care professionals with an overview of the current picture of obesity in Canada, recommendations physicians can use to address obesity with their patients and some initiatives underway to help address obesity across the country.
Cancer Control Snapshot #5: Alcohol Use and Cancer in Canada
In Canada in 2010, an estimated 173,800 Canadians were diagnosed with cancer and 76,200 died from it. Alcohol use is among the top three leading risk factors for death from cancer worldwide.1 Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, as well as other key risk factors such as poor nutrition, obesity and physical inactivity, can prevent about one-third of all cancers.2 This report provides health care professionals with an overview of alcohol consumption patterns in Canada and recommendations physicians can use to address risky alcohol use with their patients.
Cancer Control Snapshot #4: Smoking and Lung Cancer in Canada
Lung cancer is the second most common cancer among Canadian men and women and remains the leading cause of cancer death.1 In 2010, an estimated 24,200 Canadians will be diagnosed with lung cancer and 20,600 will die of it. It is well established that tobacco use is a major preventable cause of cancer, accounting for 85% of all new cases of lung cancer in Canada.2 Tobacco use also contributes to a number of other cancers including cancers of the larynx, oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus, and bladder and is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and respiratory illnesses.
Cancer Control Snapshot #3: Colorectal Cancer Staging and Survival
Information on cancer stage provides important prognostic information, and late stage cancers are associated with a worse prognosis. For patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC), the five-year relative survival of patients diagnosed at the localized stage is 90% compared to 11% if diagnosed at the distant stage.1 This report presents staging information for CRC for three provinces and gives a brief overview of the efforts underway in Canada to collect cancer staging information nation-wide. It also presents the relative survival and conditional relative survival for CRC overall and by subsite, building on an emerging body of work that shows differences in survival by tumor subsite location within the colon.
Cancer Control Snapshot #2: Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of death from cancer in Canada. This report provides a current picture of CRC trends in incidence and mortality in Canada as well as how Canada compares internationally. This report will also examine trends in CRC by subsite, building on an emerging body of evidence that suggests that cancers arising on the right side of the colon exhibit different clinical, biological and epidemiological characteristics than cancers arising on the left side of the colon.
Cancer Control Snapshot #1: Colorectal Screening in Canada
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in Canada. Screening is one of the important approaches to reduce mortality. This report is intended to provide Canadian health professionals with a brief overview of our rapid progress in the past few years and some insights as to how we can accelerate progress in the immediate future.
Colorectal Cancer Screening
Progress has been made in increasing the uptake of colorectal screening in Canada, but there is still considerable room to improve. In this brief analysis, we highlight the current data, trends, and emerging issues about screening for colorectal cancer.